Pome & Stone Handling Protocols

POME FRUIT

1. The protocol guidelines highlight the important issues and are supported by documents containing background and more detail information.
2. Please note that the various cultivars each have unique characteristics and require specific handling protocols to ensure the best eating quality
on the overseas market. This implies that one cultivar may, for instance, have to be cooled ASAP whereas for another a too fast cooling rate may
be detrimental to the inherent quality thereof.
3. Although care is taken to keep the guidelines updated, users must avail themselves of latest changes in standards and procedures.
Hortgro is not accountable for concequences stemming from the use of these guidelines.
4. Any proposal or comments are welcomed to ensure the user-friendliness of the guidelines

PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
1.1 Apply sound orchard practices1.1.1 Select cultivars which characteristics suite your climatic and soil conditions and that will ensure long term sustainability.

Determine the market ability of the cultivar (market, demand, timing, size, keeping quality, yield)
• Only use healthy plant material.
• Contact your local consultant for planting guidelines
• For fruit and leaf mineral analyses, www.arc.agric.za
• Consult your exporter for marketability
• Visit SAPO’s website for information on rootstocks
1.1.1 A. Critical questions to ask before planting new cultivars – Culdevco Download
1.1.1 B. www.saplant.co.za/
1.1.1 C. www.orangepippin.com/
1.1.2 During the production process, it is important to follow an integrated approach.

Main elements of production are:
• Rest-breaking
• Pollination
• Thinning
• Calcium sprays
• Summer pruning
• Nutrition
• Pruning
• Irrigation
Picking, Storage and Handling for Pome Fruit: Point 2. Production
1.1.3 Apply Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) principalsRefer to www.globalgap.org and www.daff.gov.za
1.1.4 Use only registered pesticides and plant protection products

According to the requirements of the country of destination.
• Concentrations and withholding periods are critical.
• The use of pesticides varies according to the specific fruit kind. Note that what can be used for pears may not necessarily be used for apples.
• Refer to regulations of residue limits and to chemical companies for withholding periods.
• Refer Hortgro Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) list at http://www.hortgro.co.za/research-technical-information/technical-information/
1.1.5 Integrated Pest and Disease Management (IPM) plays a major role in the producton of quality fruit. Pests and diseases must be montitored according to prescribed methods and chemical control must always be the last option.
1.1.6 Follow sound ethical trade principles as agreed by the Sustainability Initiative for SA.

Clear guidelines are provided at www.siza.co.za
• Obtain applicable accreditations as demanded from DAFF/market/client (HACCP, BRC, etc.)
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
2.1 Plan harvesting, packing, cooling and shipping arrangements according to realistic crop forecasts2.1.1 Accurate/realistic forecasts from the basis for sound planning
2.1.2 Ensure that sufficient capacity will be available to harvest, pack and cool the crop according to Best Operating Practices (BOP)
2.1.3 Ensure that the pack house and cold are Food Business Organisation (FBO) registered. All enitites (farm, pack house, cold store) must register.2.1.3 DAFF FBO Registration Form on www.daff.gov.za
2.1.4 Make timely arrangements for adequate shipping space
2.1.5 Ensure that the variety name is on the variety list.
Get dispensation from Dept. of agriculture if not on list
2.1.6 Ensure that contingency planning is done for unexpected events e.g. power failures
2.1.7 Ensure that contracts and agreements with your exporter/s and/or overseas receivers are in place.
2.1.8 Special market registration must be completed before the annual cut-off dates.2.1.8 www.daff.gov.za
2.1.9 Follow trapping guidelines for Bachocera Dorsalis.

Pome Fruit - Harvest

PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
3.1 Harvest fruit at optimum maturity and conditions that will ensure a quality product in the market.3.1.1 Physiological maturity at which the fruit is harvest is very important.

Monitor maturity regularly throughout the season at specific times of the day.
• It has a great influence on the storability and eating quality of the fruit.
• Heed to protocols set out per cultivar (in particular Forelle pears).
• Only optimum mature fruit should be selected for long term storage
• Maturity has a direct influence on the development of scald on certain apple varieties (The more immature the more likely scald will develop)
• It is advisable to use Hortgro's services for maturity advice.
3.1.1A Pome fruit protocols:Picking, Storage & Handling Point4,5,6,7,12,&13
3.1.1B PPECB HP28 Handling Procedure and Optimum Temperature requirements for Sea Export of Pome fruit (ppecb.com)
3.1.1C Hortec: Management of Fruit Quality Service (hortec.co.za)
3.1.2 Avoid picking wet fruit (dew, rain, irrigation)

Avoid fruit that has a high turgor pressure due to rain or irrigation. If rain continues for more than 10 hours, it is recommended that picking resumes only the next day
3.1.2 Pome fruit protocols: Picking, Storage & Handling Point4,5,6,7
3.1.3 Optimise picking program according to cultivar, maturity and bruisability

Avoid high turgidity period for bruisable cultivars
• Avoid warm periods of the day for high wilt potential cultivars

3.1.3 Pome fruit protocols: Picking, Storage & Handling Point4,5,6,7
3.1.4 Employ well trained pickers

Best harvesting methodology/harvest aids and equipment to be used.
• Specialised training of farm workers is available (Refer www.saorchard.co.za).
• When using contract pickers ensure that incentives do not contribute to bruising and /or damage.
3.1.4 Pome fruit protocols: Picking, Storage & Handling Point 7
3.1.5 Be particularly careful for bruising during picking and handling

Ensure that protocols are in place
3.1.5 Bruising and it’s control - Finlay
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL CONCEPTSSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
4.1 Keep picked fruit cool4.1.1 Keep fruit covered from dust and direct sunlight
4.2 Move picked fruit with minimum temperature rise and skin damage to cooling facility4.2.1 Move picked fruit with covered transport as soon as possible to a cooling facility prior to packing
Trucks should under no circumstances be allowed to stand in the sun during the unloading process.
4.3 Ensure traceability4.3.1 All bins to be identified and data entered into an effective traceability system.
4.4 Apply suitable post harvest treatment on receipt of fruit4.4.1 Binned fruit to be drenched according to cultivar, storage and marketing requirements
MRL (Maximum Residue Levels) vary from market to market.
• Chemicals to prevent post harvest defects are critical for some cultivars.
4.5 Apply controlled wilting when appropriate4.5.1 Strictly follow controlled wilting for those cultivars that are prone to bruising (Refer refrigeration consultants)4.5.1Pome fruit protocols:
Picking, Storage & Handling
Point 8,9 &15
4.6 Cool fruit in bins4.6.1 All fruit to be placed under cooling within 12 hours after picking
4.6.2.Cool fruit in bins with forced air cooling to 5°C within 48 hours and then down to required storage temperature. But keep in mind that cultivar requirements differ.

[Exception: Slower cooling rates to be applied to cultivars (GS/PL/Cripps Pink) that can develop core flush]
• Stack bins in tunnels to ensure effective FAC (Forced air not imperative, as long as high capacity fans are operating to circulate air over bins of fruit).
• Relative humidity should be between 90% & 93%.
• Do not use inlet temperature air of below -2.0°C.
• Reduce air speed as soon as target temperature has been reached.
• Pulp temperature should never be lower than -1.0°C.


4.6.3 Summer Pears in particular must be cooled to below-0.5°C as soon as possible

Refer to (ppecb.com) for list of Summer Pears
4.7 Follow protocols to avoid yellowing and bitter pit (apples)4.7.1 Fruit with a high potential for bitter pit and for bruising to be handled separately and marketed as soon as possible.4.7.1A Pome fruit protocols:
Picking, Storage & Handling
Point 13, 14 &16

4.7.1B DFPT Research Bitter Pit Pamphlet
4.8 Strictly follow CA protocols for fruit selected for this purpose.4.8.1 Where fruit is to be CA stored, protocols and guidelines to be followed strictly as per Hortgro’s CA guidelines4.8.1 CA Guidelines
4.9 Strictly follow protocols when using ripening inhibitors such as MCP.4.9.1 Cultivars react differently to MCP. Make sure of suppliers’ guidelines.
4.10 Prepare and monitor drenches regularly4.10.1 Timeously mix chlorine or DPA in drenches. Check tank concentrations regulary (4x per day)

NB: DPA treated fruit is not allowed in EU countries. If fruit is treated with DPA for other markets the risk of DPA cross contaminaton must be managed.
4.10.1 Pome fruit protocols: Picking, Storage & Handling Point 10
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
5.1 Prepare packing lines5.1 Ensure packing lines are clean and do not cause velocity bruises
Refer to agents of packing lines
5.1 Pome fruit protocols:
Picking, Storage & Handling
Point 14
5.2 The pack house must be hygienic and safe
5.2.1 Food Safety guidelines. ppecb.com
Clear guidelines are provided at www.siza.co.za
• Obtain applicable accreditations as demanded from DAFF/market/client (HACCP, BRC, etc.)
5.2.1 Pome fruit protocols: Picking, Storage & Handling Point 11
5.2.2 Recommended guidelines for pack house hygiene are available at PPECB (ppecb.com)
5.3 Keep temperature in the pack house as cool as possible (<25°C)
5.3.1 Keep doors closed

Refer to refrigeration consultants
5.3.1 Pome fruit protocols: Picking, Storage & Handling Point 11
5.4 Pack fruit as soon as possible after it has been taken out of the cold store5.4.1 Pack fruit within 1 hour after it has been removed from the cold store

No fruit should be left on the pack line during lunch time or over night
5.5 Only use good quality packaging material with sufficient ventilation
5.5.1 Cartons and other packaging material must meet minimum standards

Good ventilation is essential for quality fruit.
• Only use Super Vent cartons for Summer Pears.


5.5.2 Use packaging per cultivar and specification as instructed by exporter

Consult with the exporters adviser.
• Use plastic bags where recommended to restrict moisture loss.
5.5.1 Pome Fruit Packaging Guideline
5.6 Ensure that packed fruit meets the prescribed minimum standards set by DAFF and the exporter.5.6.1 Packed produce must conform to the minimum standards set by DAFF (www.daff.gov.za) and the exporter.

Contact your exporter for standards.

5.6.2 List of words not allowed: See 5.5.1 Pome Fruit Packaging Guidelines
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
6.1 Stack and secure pallet loads that can withstand the entire handling chain.6.1.1 Strictly follow palletisation instructions

Use only pallets that meet the standards prescribed and designed according to the specific cartons.
• Ensure all prescribed securing strips/sheets are inserted.
6.1.1 Pome fruit protocols: Picking, Storage & Handling Point 11
6.1.2 Pallets must be marked in accordance with the ISPM15 requirements.
The mark must be clearly visible (Burned into corner pieces and not stamped.) Important: A wood packaging material declaration form (See Download) must be completed by the Pack House Manager and submitted to PPECB for verification.
6.1.2A Declaration for wood packaging material

6.12B Declaration of WPM (Pack Houses)

6.1.2C ISPM no 15 Marking requirements

6.1.2D Memo for Declaring WPM (Pack House)
6.1.3 High cube pallets may not exceed 2.4m.
Pallet loads that exceed the height limits are prone to damage and also restrict outflow to the extent that quality may be seriously affected.
6.2 Identify the content of the pallet according to the prescribed standards6.2.1 Apply appropriate carton and pallet information stamps and stickers
It is important for traceability purposes.
• Comply with marketing requirements of Dept. of Agriculture (DAFF), PPECB and Exporter.www.daff.gov.za
6.3 Complete pallet load as soon as possible and put into cold storage6.3.1 Complete pallet as soon as possible to minimise exposure to ambient temperature, not longer than 3 hours.
Pallets awaiting inspection should be kept under cooling
6.4 Ensure that fruit and pack specification is registered with Paltrack6.4.1 All specifications must be registered with Paltrack to avoid delays at intake points and terminals6.4.1 Paltrack contact details
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
7.1 Present the fruit for export inspection to PPECB on the day of packing7.1.1 Make arrangements with PPECB for regular inspections (at least once a day)
Inspection according to various exporters standards or minimum export standards of the Dept. of Agric:
www.daff.gov.za
7.1.1 Pome fruit protocols: Picking, Storage & Handling Point 12

PPECB Head Office: Plattekloof
Tel: (021) 930 1134
Fax: (021) 936 7207
7.1.2 For approved fruit, forced air cooling must commence within 1hour after inspection
7.1.3 Pome fruit still in local storage after 35 days must be re-inspected by PPECB for export.
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
8.1 Place pallets in the cold room immediately on arrival8.1.1 Pallets received from the pack house or other sources to be placed under cooling immediately upon arrival
8.1.2 Group pallets as far as possible in such a way that tunnels consist of the same carton/pack type to ensure effective cooling
8.1.1 Pome fruit protocols: Picking, Storage & Handling Point 11
8.2 Forced air cool fruit8.2.1 Forced Air Cool fruit to the required temperature within 48 hours, but keep in mind that cultivars differ.
Cooling rate varies according to the carton type and inner packaging.
• The longer fruit is at too low temperatures, ther greater the risk of freezing or cold damage.
8.2.1 A: Pome fruit protocols: Point 12

8.2.1 B: PPECB Blue Book – Chapter 2 – Cold Storage Requirements

8.2.1 C: Forced Air Cooling Principles download

8.2.1 D: PPECB Blue Book -Chapter 8- Optimum Storing and Shipping Conditions
8.2.2 Only battery operated forklifts or forklifts powered by gas (a purifier must be installed) may be used inside cold stores and containers.
No diesel powered forklifts are allowed.
8.3 Special handling protocols apply for Summer Pears8.3.1 Follow protocols for Summer Pears8.3.1 DFPT Summer Pear Guidelines
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
9.1 Maintain cold chain within prescribed tolerance9.1.1 The form of transport used must be able to maintain the cold chain
Use refrigerated transport if risk of temperature rises exists
9.1.1 A: PPECB RRMT protocol

9.1.1 B: PPECB Blue Book Chapter 3 General requirements for Refrigerated Transport

9.1.1 C: Chapter 6 Pre-shipment

9.1.1 D: Pome fruit protocols: Picking, Storage & Handling Point 12 &16
9.1.2 Provide adequate loading docks/facilities to maintain temperature and expedite loading process
9.1.3 Time Temperature Tolerances (TTTs) must be adhered to
Where necessary Gensets (power units) must be used when integral containers are loaded with cold fruit inland
9.1.3 PPECB Blue Book
9.1.4 Pre-stage loads in holding rooms/airlocks that can maintain the minimum temperature

FIFO principles to be applied
• Tighten pallet starps to avoid pallet loads collapsing during the handling and transport claim
9.2 Only fruit that is at the desired pulp temperature may be allowed to be loaded9.2.1 Fruit may only be dispatched if the pulp temperature is not above 1.5°C, but preferably not above 0°C
Fruit that is more than 2°C above booked carrying temperature may not be loaded into containers
9.2.1 A PPECB Minimum Standard for Reefer Container Procedure
9.2.3 It is recommended that one pallet per container is fitted with a reliable temperature recorder.9.2.3 Temperature Recorder Guidelines
Download
9.3 When fruit is moved to another cold store or terminal Transmission Files must be sent timeously9.3.1 Pallet information recorded on the data base at the cold store/pack house must be sent to receiving depot
Delays at receiving depots can be reduced significantly if the pallet database information is transferred before the vehicle arrives and rescanning of pallet specification avoided
9.4 Avoid exceeding load and axle mass restrictions of the transportation mode9.4.1 Total load and stacking pattern of pallets must be within the road vehicle regulations and container capacity
Be specifically careful when loading hi-cubed pear pallets to prevent axile mass of trucks being exceeded.
9.5 Deliver full container to the stack/depot as quickly as possible9.5.1 Make sure open stack times before loading containers9.5.1 A Minimum Standard for Reefer Container Procedure
9.5.2 Arrange for plug –in points in event of stacks not being accessible
9.5.3 Container to be connected to power as soon as possible after arrival at the stack/depot
9.5.4 In the event of having to consider loading a container at more than one loading point, the special guidelines for dual loads have to be followed9.5.4 A A Dual Load Guidelines
9.5.4 B PPECB Guidelines
9.6 Monitor container temperatures regularly9.6.1 Container temperatures to be monitored every 4 hours 24/79.6.1 Minimum Standard for Reefer Container Procedure
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
10.1 Handle, store and ship within protocols10.1 Blue Book Chapter 2: Cold Store Requirements
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
11.1 Pome fruit may be sent by airfreight, conventional shipment or integral reefer containers11.1 Select shipping mode according to cost, quality and marketing considerations11.1 A: PPECB Blue Book Chapter 11: Air Exports
download
11.1B: PPECB Blue Book Chapter 4: Preparation of Containers
download
11.1C: PPECB Blue Book Chapter 5: Preparation of Conventional Vessels
download
11.1D: PPECB Blue Book Chapter 7: Actions during and after Completions of Loading
download
11.2 Book shipping space timeously with the specified carrying temperatures and conditions11.2.1 All CTOs (Container Terminal Orders) to reflect the product, temperature setting, temperature regime codes and ventilation settings Summer Pears to be shipped at (-1ºC or -1.5ºC) (DP1 or DP2)11.2.1A PPECB Minimum Standard for Reefer Container Procedure
download
11.2.1B PPECB Blue Book
download
11.2.1C PPECB Export Booking Process (Q69)
11.2.1D PPECB Carrying Temperatures-HP22
11.2.2 Employ service of a reliable and knowledge logistics service provider to arrange shipping as well as export documentation Incorrect or late documentation can lead to serious delays in overseas discharge ports with subsequent risk of poor fruit condition
11.3 Monitor carrying temperatures11.3.1 Monitor and analyse carrying temperature en route Take corrective action in the event of deviations
New technology is available to monitor temperatures en route
11.3.1A PPECB Blue Book Chapter 9 Actions during Voyage
download
11.4 Forelle pears must be kept under cooling for at least 12 weeks before making available for consumption11.4.1 The standard Forelle protocol requires at least 8 weeks local storage after picking, irrespective of harvest date, prior to shipping (assuming 4 weeks for transit to market). Forelle and Vermont Beauty pears must be kept under continuous cooling for at least 12 weeks to minimise mealiness and to ensure even ripening. Release dates (picking dates) are prescribed by Hortec per sub production area.11.4.1 Hortec Forelle Handling Guidelines
download
11.4.2 The Forelle Early Market Access (FEMA) protocol entails the later harvested Forelle/Vermont Beauty (crisp and sweet), and treatment with 1-MCP for immediate marketing. This is subject to a FEMA release date by Hortec. The requirements of the programme, by invitation, are published annually by Hortgro.
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
12.1 Market the fruit within the fruits specified lifetime, ensuring a good quality fruit12.1.1 Obtain quality feedback to support future decisions12.1A PPECB Blue Book
– Chapter 10 Actions on Completion of Voyage
download
12.1.2 Monitor sales progress to ensure that the fruit is marketed at the best price and quality

STONE FRUIT

1. THE PROTOCOL GUIDELINES HIGHLIGHT IMPORTANT ISSUES AND ARE SUPPORTED BY DOCUMENTS CONTAINING BACKGROUND AND MORE DETAIL INFORMATION.
2. PLEASE NOTE THAT THE VARIOUS CULTIVARS EACH HAVE UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS AND REQUIRE SPECIFIC HANDLING PROTOCOLS TO ENSURE THE BEST EATING QUALITY
ON THE OVERSEAS MARKET. THIS IMPLIES THAT ONE CULTIVAR MAY, FOR INSTANCE, HAVE TO BE COOLED ASAP WHEREAS FOR ANOTHER A TOO FAST COOLING RATE MAY
BE DETRIMENTAL TO THE INHERENT QUALITY THEREOF.
3. ALTHOUGH CARE IS TAKEN TO KEEP THE GUIDELINES UPDATED, USERS MUST AVAIL THEMSELVES OF LATEST CHANGES IN STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES.
HORTGRO IS NOT ACCOUNTABLE FOR CONCEQUENCES STEMMING FROM THE USE OF THESE GUIDELINES.
4. ANY PROPOSAL OR COMMENTS ARE WELCOMED TO ENSURE THE USER-FRIENDLINESS OF THE GUIDELINES

PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
1.1 Apply sound orchard practices1.1.1 Select cultivars which characteristics suite your climatic/soil conditions and that will ensure longterm sustainability.
Determine the marketablity of the cultivar (market, demand, timing, size, keeping quality, yield).
Only use healthy certified plant material.
Use the recommended rootstock for your circumstances and cultivar.
Do fruit and leaf mineral analysis.
http://www.arc.agric.za
Contact your local consultant for planting guidelines.
1.1.1.A Critical questions to ask before planting new cultivars – Culdevco
Download

1.1.1.B www.saplant.co.za

1.1.1.C www.orangepippin.com
1.1.2 Ensure good fruit size and post harvest storability by thinning and using the correct cultural practices.
1.1.3 Apply Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) principles.
Refer
http://www.globalgap.org
http://www.daff.gov.za/
1.1.4 Use only registered pesticides and plant protection products.
According to the requirements of the country of destination.
Concentrations and withholding periods are critical.
The use of pesticides varies according to the specific fruit kind. Note that what can be used for nectarines may not necessarily be used for plums.
Refer to regulations of residue limits and to chemical companies for withholding periods.
Refer Hortgro Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) list at
www.hortgro.co.za

Monitor quarantine pests regularly (Fruitfly, False Codling Moth, etc.).
Follow integrated pest management (IPM) principles.
1.1.5 Follow sound ethical trade principles as agreed by the sustainability initiative for SA.
Clear guidelines are provided at http://www.siza.co.za
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
2.1 Plan harvesting, packing, cooling and shipping arrangements according to realistic crop forecasts2.1.1 Accurate/realistic forecasts form the basis for sound planning.
2.1.2 Ensure that sufficient capacity will be available to harvest, pack and cool the crop according to Best Operating Practices (BOP).
2.1.3 Ensure that your pack house and cold store are FBO (Food Business Organisation) registered.2.1.3 DAFF FBO Registration Form
Download
2.1.4 Make timely arrangements for adequate shipping space.
2.1.5 Ensure that the variety name is on the variety list.
Get dispensation from Dept. of agriculture if not on list.
2.1.6 Ensure that contingency planning is done for unexpected events e.g. power failures.
2.1.7 Ensure that contracted agreements with your exporter/s and/or overseas receivers are in place.
2.1.8 Special market registration must be complete in timely manner.
2.1.9 Follow trapping guidelines for Bactrocera Dorsalis
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
3.1 Harvest fruit at optimum maturity and conditions that will ensure a quality product in the market.3.1.1 Physiological maturity at which the fruit is harvest is very important.
It has a great influence on the storability and eating quality of the fruit.
3.1.1 Stone fruit protocols:
Chapter 3 Paragraph C Download
Chapter 3 Paragraph A Download &
Tables 4 & 5 Download
Chapter 2 Harvest
Download
3.1.2 Monitor maturity regularly throughout the season at specific times of the day.
Use correct pressure tester and procedure (diameter of tip, depth of cut, temperature, etc.)
Contact leading experts for guidance
3.1.3 Avoid picking wet fruit (dew, rain, irrigation)
Avoid fruit that is high in turgor pressure due to rain or irrigation. If rain continues for more than 10 hours, it is recommended that picking resumes only the next day.
3.1.3 Stone fruit protocols:
Chapter 3 Paragraph A
Download
Chapter 2. Harvest
Download
3.1.4 Harvest fruit during the cool hours of the day
Preferably early morning and under 25°C and reduce field heat as soon as possible after harvest.
3.1.4 Stone fruit protocols:
Chapter 2 Harvest
Download
Chapter 3 Paragraph A
Download
3.1.5 Employ well trained pickers
Best harvesting methodology/harvest aids and equipment to be used
3.1.6 Advise exporter/marketing staff if harvesting conditions may impact on stability of the fruit.
Rain/heat waves may have a serious impact on product quality and shelf life.
3.1.7 Heat wave guidelines.
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL CONCEPTSSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
4.1 Keep picked fruit cool4.1.1 Keep fruit covered from dust and direct sun
4.2 Move picked fruit with minimum temperature rise and skin damage to cooling facility4.2.1 Move picked fruit with covered transport as soon as possible to a cooling facility prior to packing.4.2.1 Stone fruit protocols
Chapter 2. Harvest Download
4.3 Remove field heat4.3.1 Ensure that field heat is removed a soon as possible after harvest.4.3.1A Psychometric chart for determining of the dew point temperature.Download
4.3.1B Stone Fruit Protocols:
Chapter 3 – Par A Download
Chapter 3 – Par C Download

4.3.1C Stone Fruit Protocols:
Chapter 2 – 3 Pre cooling Download
4.3.2 Bins should be stacked in tunnels to ensure effective cooling throughout the bins.
Use forced air of 15°C to achieve this temperature throughout the bins within 3 hours.
Forced air not imperative, as long as high capacity fans are operating to circulate air over bins of fruit.
Reduce air speed as soon as the target temperature is reached.
4.3.3 Relative humidity should be between 90 and 93% and should be measured regularly. Very important to prevent shrivel.
PRIMARY CONSEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
5.1 Pack and cool fruit on the same day as it is harvested.5.1.1 All fruit should be packed within 12 hours of receipt at the pack house.5.1.1 Stone fruit protocols:
-Chapter 3: Paragraph A Download
-Chapter 3: Paragraph C Download
– Chapter 2 – 4 Packaging Download
5.1.2 Provision should be made for storage guidelines in the event of packing delays due to marketing strategy or insufficient packing capacity.
5.1.3 When shelf-life extending products (e.g. SmartFreshSM ) are used, special guidelines are to be followed.
5.2 The pack house must be hygienic and safe.5.2.2 Food Safety – www.ppecb.com5.2A Stone fruit protocols:
Chapter 3 Paragraph F
5.2B Recommended guidelines for pack house hygiene are available at PPECB/Hortgro, (HACCP/GlobalGAP guidelines.
5.3 Keep temperature in the pack house as cool as possible (<25°C).5.3.1 Keep doors closed.5.3.1 Stone fruit protocols:
Chapter 3 Paragraph A Download
5.4 Pack fruit without unnecessary delay.5.4.1 No fruit should be left on the pack line during lunch time or over night.5.4.1 Stone fruit protocols:
Chapter 3 Paragraph A Download
Chapter 3 Paragraph C Download
5.5 Only use good quality packaging material with sufficient ventilation5.5.1 Cartons and other packaging material must meet minimum standards.

Good ventilation is essential for quality fruit
5.5.1 POME & STONE HANDELING PROTOCOLS 2019 Download
5.5.2 Use shrivel sheets for specific plums cultivars where recommended.

Loss of moisture due to insufficient packaging may result in fruit with shrivel.
5.5.3 Use packaging per cultivar and specification as instructed by the exporter.

Consult with the exporter’s adviser.
5.6 Ensure that packed fruit meets the prescribed minimum standards as set by the DAFF and the exporter.5.6.1 Fruit must conform to the minimum standards set by DAFF and the standards prescribed by the exporter.

Contact your exporter for standards.
5.6.1A PPECB regional office
www.ppecb.com
5.6.1B DAFF
www.daff.gov.za
5.6.2 Marking on cartons may not be misleading. A list of words issued by DAFF may not be used and consignments will be rejected if one or more of these words appear.5.6.2 List of words not allowed.
Download
PRIMARY CONSEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
6.1 Stack and secure pallet loads that can withstand the entire handling chain.6.1.1 Strictly follow palletisation instructions.
Use only pallets that meet the standards prescribed and designed according to the specific cartons.
Ensure all prescribed securing strips/sheets are inserted.
6.1.1A STONE FRUIT PACK-MATERIAL GUIDELINES 2019
Download
6.1.1B Stone fruit Protocols:
-Chapter 2 – 5 Palletising
Download
6.1.2 Pallets must be marked in accordance with ISPM 15 requirements.
Mark must be clearly visible. (Burned into corner pieces and not stamped.)
6.1.3 Pallet heights must not exceed the following limits:
Conventional shipping standard pallet-2.10m.
High cube container pallets – 2.35m.
Pallet loads that exceed the height limits are prone to damage and also restrict airflow to the extent that quality may be seriously affected.
6.2 Identify the content of the pallet according to the prescribed standards.6.2.1 Apply appropriate carton and pallet information stamps and stickers.
It is important for traceability purposes.
Make sure about marking requirements from DAFF, PPECB and Exporters.
www.daff.gov.za
www.ppecb.com
Click on DAFF link
In the left tab navigate to Division/Food Safety and Quality Assurance.
On the main window click on Export standards/Deciduous Fruit.
6.3 Complete pallet load as soon as possible and put into cold storage6.3.1 Complete pallet as soon as possible to minimise exposure to ambient temperatures but not longer than 3 hours.
Pallets awaiting inspection should be kept under cooling.
6.4 Ensure that fruit and pack specification is registered with Paltrack6.4.1 All specifications must be registered with Paltrack to ensure delays at intake points and terminal are avoided6.4.1 Paltrack contact details
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PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
7.1 Present the fruit for export inspection to PPECB on the day of packing.7.1.1 Make arrangements with PPECB for regular inspections (at least once a day).
• Inspection according to various exporters standards or minimum export standards of the Dept. of Agric: www.daff.gov.za
or PPECB: www.ppecb.com
In the left tab navigate to Division/ Food Safety and Quality Assurance. On the main window click on Export standards/Deciduous Fruit
7.1.1A Stone fruit protocols:-Chapter 2 6. Inspection
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7.1.1B PPECB Contact detail
Click on DAFF link
DAFF
ppecb
7.1.2 For approved fruit, forced air cooling must commence within 1hour after inspection.
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
8.1 Place pallets in the cold room immediately on arrival.8.1.1 Limit total time between harvest and forced air cooling to the minimum.8.1.1 Stone fruit protocols:
Psychometric chart. Download
Chapter 3 – Paragraph C Download
Chapter 3 – Figure 1 & Figure 2 download
Chapter 2-7 Forced Air Cooling DownloadDownload
8.1.2 Group pallets as far as possible in such a way that tunnels consist of the same carton/pack type to ensure effective cooling.
8.2 Forced air cool at recommended cooling rates (according to fruit kind and cultivar) as soon as possible.8.2.1 Cool apricots, peaches and nectarines within 10-12 hours to below 10°C pulp temperature and within 24 hours to -0.5°C. In the case of plums, cool fruit to between 3°C and 5°C in 10 to 12 hours and within a total cooling time of 24 to 36 hours to -0.5°C.

Some cultivars are more sensitive to rapid cooling than others and this must be taken into consideration (Refer Experico research).
Cooling rate varies according to the carton type and inner packaging.
Forced air fans to be switched off when target temperature has been reached.
A special protocol is to be followed for plums treated with SmartFresh tm.
8.2.2 The delivery air temperature must not be lower than-1.5°/-1°C depending on variety.
8.2.3 Pulp temperature of stone fruit may never, at any place in the carton/pallet, be lower than – 1.0°C.
8.2.4 Only battery operated forklifts or forklifts powered by gas (a purifier must be installed) may be used inside cold rooms and containers. No diesel powered forklifts are allowed!
8.2.5 No pallets may be stacked on top of each other (double stacking) without supports put in place to hold up the top pallet.

Cartons have not been designed to take the weight of two pallet loads.
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORT DOCUMENTS
9.1 Maintain cold chain within prescribed tolerance9.1.1 The form of transport used must be able to maintain the cold chain.
• Use refrigerated transport if risk of temperature rises exists.
• Refrigerated trucks must be approved by PPECB.
• When using flat bed trucks, the load must be covered so not to allow ambient airflow through or around pallets on the truck.
9.1.1 A PPECB RRMT protocol Download
9.1.1 B PPECB Blue Book
Chapter 3 General requirements for Refrigerated Transport Download

9.1.1 C Chapter 6 Pre-shipment Download

9.1.1 D Stone fruit protocols: Download
-Chapter 2 – 8 Dispatch
9.1.2 Provide adequate loading docks/facilities to maintain temperature and expedite loading process.
9.1.3 Pre- stage loads in holding rooms/airlocks that can maintain the temperature.
• FIFO principals to be applied.
• Tighten pallet straps to avoid pallet loads collapsing during the handling and transport chain.
9.2 Only fruit that is at the desired pulp temperature may be allowed to be loaded.9.2.1 Fruit may only be dispatched if the pulp temperature is not above 1.0°C, but preferably not above 0°C.
Fruit which is more than 2°C above booked carrying temperature may not be loaded into containers.
9.2.1 A PPECB Minimum Standard for Reefer Container Procedure Download
9.2.1 B Stone fruit protocols: Download
-Chapter 2-8 Dispatch

9.2.1 C PPECB Blue Book – Chapter 4: Preparation of containers
9.2.1 D PPECB Blue Book – Actions during loading and after completion of loading
9.2.2 Ensure that CTO (Container Terminal Orders) instructions correspond with the load and the container settings.
9.2.3 Plug points must be available to power up the container refrigeration to check the settings.9.2.3 Temperature Recorder Guidelines
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9.2.4 Fit one pallet per container with a reliable temperature recorder.
9.2.5 Use void plugs at the door end of the container to contribute to better airflow and cooling.
• Essential for plums
• Recommended for apricots, peaches and nectarines
9.3 When fruit is moved to another cold store or terminal Transmission Files must be sent timely.9.3.1 Pallet information recorded on the data base at the cold store/pack house must be sent to receiving depot.
Delays at receiving depots can be reduced significantly if the pallet data base information is transferred before the vehicle arrives and rescanning of pallet specification avoided.
9.4 Deliver full container to the stack/depot as quickly as possible.9.4.1 Make sure of open stack times before loading containers9.4.1 A PPECB minimum Standards for Reefer Container Procedure. Download
9.4.1 B Stone fruit protocols: Download
-Chapter 2-8 Dispatch
9.4.2 Time Temperature Tolerances (TTT’s) must be adhered to.
Where necessary Gensets (power units) must be used when integral containers are loaded inland with cold fruit.
9.4.2 PPECB Blue Book Download
9.4.3 Arrange for plug –in points in event of stacks not being accessible.
Containers may not be left without being connected to power.
9.4.4 Container to be connected to power within 1 hour after arrival at the stack/depot.
9.4.5 In the event of having to consider loading a container at more than one loading point, the special guidelines for dual loads have to be followed.9.4.5 A Dual Load Guidelines Download
9.4.5 B PPECB Guidelines Download
9.5 Monitor container temperatures regularly.9.5.1 Container temperatures to be monitored every 4 hours 24/79.5.1 A Minimum Standard for Reefer Container Procedure Download
9.5.1 B Stone fruit protocols: Download
-Chapter 2-8 Dispatch
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
10.1 Handle, store and ship within protocols.10.1 Blue Book Chapter 2: Cold Store Requirements
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PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
11.1 Stone fruit may be sent by airfreight, conventional shipment or integral containers.For airfreight of stone fruit refer to the Supporting Document 11.1.A211.1A1 PPECB Blue Book – Chapter 11: Air Exports
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11.1.A2 Guidelines for Airfreight of Stone Fruit Download
11.1B PPECB Blue Book – Chapter 4: Preparation of Containers.Download
11.1C PPECB Blue Book – Chapter 5: Preparation of Conventional.
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11.1D PPECB Blue Book – Chapter 7: Actions during and after Completion of Loading.
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11.1E Stone Fruit Protocols:Chapter 2-9: Shipping
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11.2 Attempt to load fruit into the shipping mode of choice within 5 days after packing11.2.1 For single temperature cultivars the temperature of fruit should not go lower than -1.0°C or higher than +1.5°C

• Dual temperature plum cultivars to be carried at recommended temperatures
• Special temperature regimes are applicable for plums treated with SmartFresh tm
11.2.1A1 Plum Shipping Temperatures: Regime Guidelines.
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11.2.1B PPECB Blue Book –Chapter 8: Optimum Storing and Shipping Conditions.
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11.2.1C ExperiCo Storage of Plums guidelines.
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11.2.1D Stone fruit protocols:Chapter 2-9: Shipping
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11.2.1E SmartFresh tm Songold Protocol
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11.2.1F Songold cooling protocol
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11.2.1G Plum Temperature Code List.
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11.2.1H PPECB HP22
11.3 Book shipping space timely with specified carrying temperatures and conditions11.3.1 All CTOs (Container Terminal Orders) to reflect the product, temperature setting, temperature regime codes and ventilation settings.11.3.1A PPECB Minimum Standard for Reefer Container Procedure Download
11.3.1B PPECB Blue Book
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11.3.1C PPECB Export Booking Process (Q69)
11.4 Monitor carrying temperatures11.4.1 Monitor and analyse carrying temperature en route

Take corrective action in the event of deviations
For airfreight of stone fruit refer to the Supporting Document 11.1.A2
PRIMARY CONCEPTSCRITICAL GUIDELINESSUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
12.1 Market the fruit within the fruit’s specified lifetime, ensuring a good quality fruit12.1.1 Obtain quality feedback to support future decisions12.1A PPECB Blue Book
-Chapter 10 actions on Completion of Voyage
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12.1B Stone fruit protocols:
-Chapter 2 10. Marketing download
-Chapter 3 Paragraph D
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12.1C Ripening of Plums
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12.1.2 Monitor sales progress to ensure that the fruit is marketed at the best price and quality.
12.1.3 Consult with cultivar owners/experts on lifetime of specific cultivars (not listed in 12.1C).
12.1.4 To achieve the best eating quality plums, the plums should be handled and ripened as indicated in the document ‘ Ripening of Plums’’
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